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2022 MOCA-Peds Exam Content

Preliminary Learning Objectives for 2022

2022 MOCA-Peds learning objectives have not been finalized and are subject to change. Final learning objectives will be available by Nov. 1, 2021.

Most questions will be based on 45 learning objectives drawn from the content outline that reflects the breadth of knowledge required for practice.

After you answer each question, we ask you how confident you are in your answer and how relevant the question was to you. Taking the time to answer these questions will help improve your MOCA-Peds experience. Your answers determine which questions you will see again as repeats and, over time, will help the ABP select questions more relevant to you. You can review your ratings and see how you did at any time on the My Performance page. You will want to pay special attention to questions you answered confidently but missed; there's a good chance you’ll see a repeat version of them in another quarter.

General Pediatrics

  1. Counsel families about healthy beverage consumption in early childhood.
  2. Develop a management plan for a patient with an abnormal depression screening.
  3. Diagnose and manage acute head injury.
  4. Evaluate a neonate with respiratory distress.
  5. Evaluate an adolescent with secondary amenorrhea.
  6. Evaluate and manage a child with a disorder of the scalp.
  7. Evaluate and manage a child with postconcussion syndrome.
  8. Evaluate and manage a patient with nasal polyps.
  9. Evaluate and manage an infant or child with a new heart murmur.
  10. Evaluate and manage infants and children with acute urinary tract infection.
  11. Evaluate the developmental status of a child at 24 months of age.
  12. Identify and manage cutaneous vascular lesions of infancy.
  13. Know the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.
  14. Know the differential diagnosis of hip pain.
  15. Manage an adolescent with functional abdominal pain.
  16. Manage problems associated with school overachievement.
  17. Plan the evaluation of a child with recurrent pneumonia.
  18. Plan the initial evaluation of a child with thyroid enlargement.
  19. Plan the management of a child with recurrent or persistent streptococcal infection.
  20. Plan the management of athletic amenorrhea.
  21. Provide guidance regarding educational accommodations and interventions.
  22. Provide guidance regarding toilet training refusal.
  23. Recognize and apply ethical principles involved in informed consent/assent.
  24. Recognize and evaluate an adolescent with abnormal pubertal development.
  25. Recognize and manage labial adhesions.
  26. Recognize and manage migraine variants in children.
  27. Recognize and plan initial evaluation of altered mental status.
  28. Recognize common congenital anomalies.
  29. Recognize common X-linked genetic disorders.
  30. Recognize complications of antibiotic overuse.
  31. Recognize the clinical features of gastroesophageal reflux (including the symptoms involving other organ systems).
  32. Recognize the clinical features of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
  33. Recognize the clinical manifestations of cardiac dysrhythmias.
  34. Recognize the clinical presentation and evaluation for oral allergy syndrome.
  35. Recognize the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of methemoglobinemia.
  36. Recognize the factors that relate to risk of error or reduced patient safety.
  37. Recognize the presentation of primary disorders of phagocytic number and/or function
  38. Recognize the signs and symptoms of cancers involving the bone.
  39. Understand the diagnosis and management of infectious diarrhea.
  40. Understand the differential diagnosis of tachypnea in an infant.
  41. Understand the differential diagnosis, evaluation, and management of otorrhea in children.
  42. Understand the impact of racism on child and adolescent health.
  43. Understand the inherited patterns of various blood disorders.
  44. Understand the management of a prepubertal child with genital warts.
  45. Understand the role of the pediatrician in prevention of child abuse and neglect.

Adolescent Medicine

  1. Apply the principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice to the care of patients.
  2. Diagnose patients with gender dysphoria.
  3. Differentiate between constitutional delay of growth and puberty, genetic short stature, and pathological causes.
  4. Distinguish between consent and assent in research with children.
  5. Evaluate and manage a patient with an apophyseal disorder (eg, calcaneus [Sever], tibial tubercle [Osgood-Schlatter], medial humeral epicondyle [little league elbow]).
  6. Evaluate and manage a patient with cannabis use disorder.
  7. Evaluate and manage a patient with chest pain.
  8. Evaluate and manage a patient with dysuria.
  9. Evaluate and manage a patient with genital ulcers.
  10. Evaluate and manage a patient with irritable bowel syndrome.
  11. Evaluate and manage a patient with low back pain.
  12. Evaluate and manage a patient with Marfan syndrome.
  13. Evaluate and manage a patient with positive results of a substance abuse screening assessment.
  14. Evaluate and manage a patient with primary amenorrhea.
  15. Evaluate and manage a patient with self-injurious behavior (eg, cutting).
  16. Evaluate and manage a patient with sexual dysfunction (eg, anorgasmia, dyspareunia, premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction).
  17. Evaluate and manage a patient with stridor.
  18. Evaluate and manage a patient with suspected hypothyroidism.
  19. Evaluate and manage a patient with symptoms of an adrenal disorder.
  20. Evaluate and manage a patient with toxic shock syndrome.
  21. Evaluate and manage major depressive disorder.
  22. Evaluate and manage patients with vertigo.
  23. Evaluate and treat a patient with acne vulgaris.
  24. Evaluate and treat a patient with Chlamydia trachomatis infection.
  25. Evaluate and treat a patient with dysmenorrhea.
  26. Evaluate and treat a patient with refeeding syndrome.
  27. Evaluate and treat pelvic inflammatory disease and understand its complications.
  28. Formulate a differential diagnosis for a patient who has an increased body mass index.
  29. Know epidemiologic trends of unintentional injury in the U.S. and be able to recognize the factors contributing to those trends.
  30. Know side effect profiles of birth control options.
  31. Know the common causes of infertility.
  32. List common strategies for transfer to adult care for primary and specialty care services for patients with chronic illness.
  33. Plan the return to sports participation for a patient with concussion.
  34. Recognize and evaluate a patient with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder.
  35. Recognize and evaluate anxiety disorders (eg, generalized, social, and separation anxiety, panic disorders, and phobias).
  36. Recognize and evaluate malignancies.
  37. Recognize and evaluate psychotic disorders caused by medical conditions (eg, lupus cerebritis, drug toxicity).
  38. Recognize health disparities for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning youth.
  39. Recognize potential risks and complications of access to firearms.
  40. Recognize the skin manifestations of various infections.
  41. Recognize the steps of motivational interviewing and behavior change.
  42. Recognize when deviation from the typical vaccine schedule is warranted (eg, pregnancy, immunocompromised patients).
  43. Understand how to develop a quality improvement project.
  44. Understand interventions helpful in school avoidance and truancy.
  45. Understand the principles of ethics of research in human subjects.
  46. Use augmented risk-based medical screenings (eg, blood pressure, lipids, A1C) when appropriate.

Child Abuse Pediatrics

  1. Characterize and interpret the significance of injuries to the oral cavity.
  2. Characterize appropriate time frames for collection of forensic evidence after sexual assault.
  3. Characterize child maltreatment epidemiological trends.
  4. Characterize the age of a long bone fracture.
  5. Characterize the median age of abusive head trauma victims.
  6. Characterize the roles and responsibilities of mandated reporters of child maltreatment.
  7. Describe challenges for detecting and managing IPV.
  8. Develop a management and treatment plan for sexually transmitted infections.
  9. Develop a management plan for labial adhesions.
  10. Differentiate between positive, tolerable, and toxic stress.
  11. Differentiate forms of psychological maltreatment.
  12. Discuss the importance of scene investigations in distinguishing etiologies of child fatalities.
  13. Distinguish between consent and assent in research with children.
  14. Distinguish bruises from acquired and medical skin conditions.
  15. Distinguish the various causes of anal dilation.
  16. Evaluate and manage genital bleeding in a post-pubertal child.
  17. Formulate a differential diagnosis of fractures, including normal variants and medical conditions.
  18. Formulate a plan to evaluate coagulation disorders in a child with bruising.
  19. Interpret a child’s scald burns to differentiate accidental vs. inflicted injury mechanisms.
  20. Interpret dry contact burns to differentiate accidental vs. inflicted injury mechanisms.
  21. Interpret intracranial hemorrhages identified on neuroimaging.
  22. Interpret photo documentation of acute genital injuries.
  23. Interpret test results and findings for sexually transmitted infections.
  24. Know adjunctive techniques for evaluating victims of acute sexual assault.
  25. Know the requirements for good photo documentation of skin findings.
  26. Plan an appropriate hematologic evaluation for a child with abusive head trauma.
  27. Plan the evaluation and management of intrathoracic trauma.
  28. Recognize and develop a management plan for children with suspected dental neglect.
  29. Recognize and evaluate a child with isosexual precocious puberty.
  30. Recognize and manage social determinants of health in children.
  31. Recognize and/or respond to signs and symptoms of acute drug exposure.
  32. Recognize late and long-term clinical presentations and/or outcomes of abusive head trauma.
  33. Recognize maternal risk factors in the prenatal and perinatal period that impact infant health and well-being.
  34. Recognize medical conditions that result in genital ambiguity.
  35. Recognize neglect as the most common form of child maltreatment.
  36. Recognize neuroimaging findings that may be confused with abusive head trauma.
  37. Understand how to develop a quality improvement project.
  38. Understand that societal responses to child maltreatment vary among high- and low-resource countries.
  39. Understand the clinical presentation and diagnostic techniques for Treponema pallidum.
  40. Understand the complexities of covert video surveillance.
  41. Understand the impact of HIPAA laws on investigations of suspected child maltreatment.
  42. Understand the implications of the Belmont Report.
  43. Understand the limitations in estimating the age of fractures.
  44. Understand the medical provider's role in preventing and/or addressing medical neglect.
  45. Understand the pathophysiology of retinoschisis.

Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics

  1. Apply the clinical use of antipsychotic medications for problems seen in developmental and behavioral pediatrics.
  2. Apply the diagnostic criteria for ADHD in children with ID.
  3. Apply the diagnostic criteria for ASD.
  4. Apply the diagnostic criteria for intermittent explosive disorder.
  5. Assess adolescent alcohol use for alcohol use disorder.
  6. Categorize the different types of cerebral palsy.
  7. Counsel an adolescent who reports difficulty falling asleep at night.
  8. Counsel parents of a child with a phobia.
  9. Counsel regarding potential effects from prenatal toxin exposure.
  10. Describe components of evidence-based parent training programs.
  11. Describe the situations in which it is appropriate to use FDA-approved non-stimulant medications in the treatment of ADHD.
  12. Differentiate conversion disorder from factitious disorder.
  13. Differentiate nightmares from sleep terrors.
  14. Evaluate a child with encopresis.
  15. Formulate the etiologic evaluation of a child with ASD.
  16. Identify methods of prevention and management of behavioral problems developing after illness or hospitalization.
  17. Identify the appropriate educational interventions and accommodations for a child with ID.
  18. Identify the concepts taught in parent training programs.
  19. Interpret adaptive behavior assessments.
  20. Know current psychological theories of intelligence.
  21. Know genetic mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of developmental and behavioral disorders.
  22. Know management strategies for a child with developmental coordination disorder.
  23. Know methods to assess a child's or adolescent's attention span, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
  24. Know methods to assess for ASD.
  25. Know risk factors for infant maltreatment.
  26. Know the appropriate educational interventions and accommodations for children with learning disabilities.
  27. Know the basic concepts of quality improvement science.
  28. Know the developmental and behavioral features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
  29. Know the developmental and behavioral outcomes associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
  30. Know the developmental and learning profiles in children with muscular dystrophies.
  31. Know the developmental, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of closed-head injuries.
  32. Know the educational interventions for children with reading disorders.
  33. Know the language milestones of child development.
  34. Know the management for a child with epilepsy and ADHD.
  35. Know the treatment options for gender dysphoria in adolescents.
  36. Monitor for side effects in a child being treated with an SSRI.
  37. Plan the management of a child with an anxiety disorder.
  38. Plan the management of a preschool-age child who is pulling out their hair.
  39. Recognize common symptoms of attachment disorders at various ages.
  40. Recognize the investigators' responsibility when enrolling a person with cognitive limitations in a research study.
  41. Recognize the symptoms of disorders of written expression.
  42. Recognize youth with anorexia nervosa.
  43. Summarize the young adult outcomes for ADHD.
  44. Understand the components of a successful bullying prevention program.
  45. Understand the concept of evidence-based practice.

Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine

  1. Assess factors regulating the pulmonary circulation during the perinatal transitional period.
  2. Compare cerebrospinal fluid cell counts and chemistries for infants with and without meningitis.
  3. Compose a comprehensive plan to support a family anticipating the birth of a newborn infant with a fatal condition.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of and expertise in neonatal resuscitation using NRP guidelines.
  5. Describe an appropriate cytogenetic evaluation plan for the family and infant with a structural chromosomal abnormality.
  6. Describe the clinical presentation and management of neonates with Hirschsprung disease and other anorectal anomalies.
  7. Describe the indications for and techniques of mechanical ventilation.
  8. Describe the indications, limitations, and techniques for newborn screening for genetic disorders.
  9. Describe the pathophysiologic factors that affect drug bioavailability and how this changes in the newborn period.
  10. Develop a management plan for an infant with leukopenia.
  11. Differentiate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy from other causes of neonatal birth depression.
  12. Differentiate the clinical manifestations of disorders of organic acid metabolism from other causes of serious neonatal illness.
  13. Differentiate the clinical manifestations of mitochondrial from other causes of serious neonatal illness.
  14. Differentiate the risk factors, causes, and management of congenital versus acquired hearing loss.
  15. Evaluate and manage a neonate with vitamin deficiency.
  16. Formulate a differential diagnosis of a neonate with a left-sided cardiac obstructive lesion.
  17. Identify potential conflicts of interest in the funding, design, and/or execution of a research study.
  18. Identify the clinical and diagnostic features of the common neuromuscular disorders in the newborn infant and their therapies and consequences.
  19. Identify the epidemiology and clinical presentation of placental abruption.
  20. Know the caloric requirements for optimal postnatal growth of preterm infants.
  21. Know the causes, diagnosis, therapy, and outcomes for neonatal cerebrovascular accidents.
  22. Know the causes, diagnosis, therapy, and outcomes for neonatal seizures.
  23. Know the clinical features and inheritance patterns of common syndromes or associations that can be recognized in the newborn period (eg, VATER, DiGeorge).
  24. Know the effects of neonatal critical illness on parental mental health and how this may affect parent-infant interactions.
  25. Know the heritable syndromes associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and their related mechanism(s).
  26. Know the indications for, techniques, and potential complications of chest compression immediately after birth.
  27. Know the rationale and methods for early identification of infants at high risk of cerebral palsy.
  28. Manage, diagnose, and prevent neonatal fungal infections.
  29. Plan the evaluation and management of a newborn infant born to a mother with a substance use disorder.
  30. Plan the evaluation and management of a newborn infant with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia.
  31. Recognize complications related to air leak in the thorax and discuss their prevention and management.
  32. Recognize syndromes that are associated with skin lesions such as port wine stains and café au lait spots.
  33. Recognize the characteristics of newborn infant neutrophil function and how development affects susceptibility to infection.
  34. Recognize the clinical and laboratory features of essential fatty acid deficiency.
  35. Recognize the clinical features of anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.
  36. Recognize the clinical features of congenital and acquired intestinal atresia.
  37. Recognize the clinical manifestations of neonatal Chlamydia infections.
  38. Recognize the importance of iron accretion, metabolism, and its relevance to neurodevelopmental outcomes.
  39. Recognize the laboratory, imaging, and other diagnostic features of an infant with a condition affecting myocardial performance.
  40. Recognize the physiologic consequences of an arrhythmia in a fetus or newborn infant.
  41. Recognize the presentation and treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  42. Recognize the risk factors and differential diagnosis of PPHN.
  43. Understand and apply the physiologic principles necessary for the effective management of neonatal mechanical ventilation.
  44. Understand the implications of ultrasonographic findings associated with fetal gastrointestinal abnormalities.
  45. Understand the importance of fetal lung fluid during lung development and its role in perinatal adaptation in the fetus and newborn infant.

Pediatric Cardiology

  1. Counsel a patient with palliative or unrepaired congenital heart disease regarding pregnancy.
  2. Counsel a patient with single ventricle physiology regarding contraception.
  3. Counsel families concerning appropriate endocarditis prophylaxis.
  4. Counsel families regarding the short- and long-term risks of interventional or surgical treatment of coarctation of the aorta.
  5. Differentiate between disease incidence and prevalence.
  6. Differentiate types of interrupted aortic arch and recognize associated anatomic and medical conditions.
  7. Differentiate various forms of atrioventricular block via electrocardiographic monitoring.
  8. Distinguish between consent and assent in research with children.
  9. Distinguish cardiac from noncardiac chest pain.
  10. Distinguish statistical significance from clinical importance.
  11. Evaluate and manage a child with a cor triatriatum.
  12. Evaluate and manage a fetus/neonate with congenital complete atrioventricular block.
  13. Evaluate and manage a neonate with critical pulmonary stenosis.
  14. Evaluate and manage a newborn with cardiogenic shock.
  15. Evaluate and manage a newborn with cyanosis.
  16. Evaluate and manage childhood hyperlipidemia.
  17. Evaluate and manage Kawasaki disease.
  18. Evaluate and manage supraventricular tachycardia.
  19. Evaluate and manage the child and family with an inherited arrhythmia or channelopathy.
  20. Evaluate and plan appropriate management for a pediatric patient with a complete atrioventricular septal defect.
  21. Evaluate and plan appropriate management for a pediatric patient with a ventricular septal defect.
  22. Evaluate and plan appropriate management for a pediatric patient with an atrial septal defect.
  23. Evaluate and plan appropriate management for a pediatric patient with double-inlet left ventricle.
  24. Evaluate and plan appropriate management for a pediatric patient with Ebstein malformation of the tricuspid valve.
  25. Evaluate and plan appropriate management for a pediatric patient with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum.
  26. Evaluate and plan appropriate management for a pediatric patient with tetralogy of Fallot.
  27. Evaluate and plan appropriate management for a pediatric patient with tricuspid atresia.
  28. Evaluate and plan appropriate management for pediatric patients with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return.
  29. Identify potential conflicts of interest for investigators participating in a clinical trial.
  30. Manage a patient with heterotaxy and recognize the associated splenic, hepatic, intestinal, and arrhythmia issues.
  31. Plan appropriate sports participation and/or restrictions in congenital and acquired heart disease.
  32. Recognize and manage various forms of pericarditis.
  33. Recognize medications which may result in teratogenic effects.
  34. Recognize the classes of the antiarrhythmic agents and the mechanisms of action for each class of drug.
  35. Recognize the development of the aortic arch and the embryologic basic of arch defects.
  36. Recognize the differential diagnosis and evaluation of syncope.
  37. Recognize the genetic variants which are associated with acquired or congenital heart disease.
  38. Recognize the principles, prevention, and treatment of low cardiac output syndrome in the immediate postoperative period.
  39. Recognize, evaluate, and manage acute rheumatic fever.
  40. Recognize, evaluate, and manage postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia.
  41. Understand and differentiate inheritance patterns (eg, autosomal dominant, recessive, X-linked).
  42. Understand how to read and interpret an electrocardiogram or ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring in congenital heart disease, acquired heart disease, and common arrhythmia.
  43. Understand the anatomy and pathophysiology of atrial septal defects and the determinants of shunting.
  44. Understand the anatomy and pathophysiology of ventricular septal defects and the determinants of shunting.
  45. Understand the basic principles and indications for cardiac catheterization.
  46. Understand the etiology and differential diagnosis of heart failure in the neonate.
  47. Understand the mechanism of action of diuretics.
  48. Understand the principles of ethics of research in human subjects.
  49. Understand the principles of study design.
  50. Understand the principles of the transitional circulation and effects on neonatal cardiac physiology.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

  1. Apply quality improvement measures for patient safety.
  2. Describe the appropriate treatment plan for primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency.
  3. Describe the differences in the infant airway and respiratory physiology and the consequent effects on airway management.
  4. Describe the indications and uses for methods of noninvasive ventilatory support in a patient with bronchiolitis, including high-flow oxygen via nasal cannula.
  5. Describe when to perform chest compressions in a patient with ventricular fibrillation.
  6. Develop a differential diagnosis for a child with the new onset of neuromuscular weakness.
  7. Develop a treatment plan for a child presenting with status epilepticus.
  8. Diagnose portal hypertension.
  9. Explain the changes in blood pH associated with acute versus chronic hypercapnia.
  10. Identify potential conflicts of interest for investigators participating in a clinical trial.
  11. Interpret basic hemodynamics of cardiac catheterization.
  12. Interpret clinical signs to guide prognosis after drowning.
  13. Interpret mean and standard deviation in normally distributed data sets.
  14. Know the available methods and associated principles for monitoring intracranial pressure.
  15. Know the basic concepts of quality improvement science.
  16. Know the definition and components of medical malpractice.
  17. Know the effect of oxygenation and ventilation on cerebral blood flow following brain trauma.
  18. Know the emergent treatment options for intracranial hypertension.
  19. Know the potential acute complications of chest tube placement.
  20. Know the risk factors for delirium in the critically ill child.
  21. Know the signs and symptoms of professional burnout.
  22. Manage the common toxicities associated with frequently utilized chemotherapeutic agents.
  23. Plan the clinical management after suicide attempts.
  24. Plan the management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
  25. Plan the management of life-threatening complications of malignancies.
  26. Plan the management of metabolic disturbances in critical illness.
  27. Plan the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA).
  28. Recognize anticholinergic overdose.
  29. Recognize differences between withholding and withdrawing care.
  30. Recognize the clinical presentation of Graves disease.
  31. Recognize the extrarenal manifestations of hemolytic-uremic syndrome.
  32. Select appropriate statistical tools for a research study in which the data are not expected to be normally distributed.
  33. Understand and interpret mechanisms of tonicity.
  34. Understand how low cardiac output affects renovascular resistance, renal blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate as it increases in severity.
  35. Understand principles of oxygen delivery in ECMO.
  36. Understand the appropriate clinical indications for continuous renal replacement therapy.
  37. Understand the difference between assent and consent.
  38. Understand the effects of pH on protein binding of drugs.
  39. Understand the epidemiology of community-acquired and nosocomial sepsis in children.
  40. Understand the factors that affect preload and afterload.
  41. Understand the factors that influence serum drug half-life.
  42. Understand the factors that influence volume of distribution.
  43. Understand the indications for central venous catheterization.
  44. Understand the indications for various sedative agents to facilitate endotracheal intubation.
  45. Understand the mechanism for determining oxygen saturation of hemoglobin by pulse oximetry.
  46. Understand the mechanism of action of loop diuretics and their effects on acid/base balance.
  47. Understand the mechanism of normal neuromuscular transmission.
  48. Understand the treatment of corrosive ingestions (acid and alkali).

Pediatric Emergency Medicine

  1. Apply the principles of post-resuscitation care in the emergency setting.
  2. Compare and contrast the principles and applications of different research study designs.
  3. Describe different EMS provider levels and scopes of practice.
  4. Describe priniciples of providing emergency care in disasters, multi-casualty events, and mass gatherings.
  5. Describe the method for placing intraosseous catheters.
  6. Describe the techniques and limitations of airway management devices.
  7. Develop a diagnostic and management plan that takes into consideration the interaction between acute problems and underlying chronic illnesses in medically and technologically complex patients.
  8. Diagnosis and manage neonatal seizures.
  9. Differentiate features of primary immunodeficiencies.
  10. Distinguish between consent and assent in research with children.
  11. Distinguish the important features of tickborne infections.
  12. Evaluate and manage acute gastrointestinal bleeding.
  13. Evaluate and manage complications related to the ventilator-dependent patient.
  14. Evaluate and manage conditions of the anterior and posterior eye chambers.
  15. Evaluate and manage head and neck infections.
  16. Evaluate and manage new-onset psychosis.
  17. Evaluate and manage penetrating thoracic trauma.
  18. Evaluate and manage vaginal bleeding.
  19. Evaluate and treat joint dislocations.
  20. Identify closed-loop communication for clinical care.
  21. Manage bradycardia.
  22. Manage impending herniation of the brain in patients with altered mental status.
  23. Manage paraphimosis and phimosis.
  24. Manage wound complications.
  25. Plan the management of an obstructed airway in the setting of major trauma.
  26. Recognize and appropriately evaluate patients with somatoform disorders.
  27. Recognize and evaluate the need for replacement blood products in non-trauma presentations.
  28. Recognize and manage a patient requiring procedural sedation.
  29. Recognize and manage a victim of physical abuse.
  30. Recognize and manage acute myocardial infarction.
  31. Recognize and manage adrenal disorders.
  32. Recognize and manage atopic dermatitis and its complications.
  33. Recognize and manage complications of nephrotic syndrome/nephritis.
  34. Recognize and manage emergencies associated with inborn errors of metabolism.
  35. Recognize and manage heat-related illnesses.
  36. Recognize and manage inhalational burn injuries.
  37. Recognize and manage iron ingestion.
  38. Recognize and manage opioid overdose.
  39. Recognize and manage stroke.
  40. Recognize and manage symptoms of high altitude exposure.
  41. Recognize and manage tendon injuries.
  42. Recognize and manage the complications of treatments for oncologic conditions.
  43. Recognize and respond to a victim of human trafficking.
  44. Recognize indications for and interpret imaging of blunt abdominal/pelvic trauma.
  45. Recognize indications for and interpret imaging studies of cervical and spinal cord injuries.
  46. Recognize the barriers in detecting and reporting safety concerns.
  47. Understand how to develop a quality improvement project.

Pediatric Endocrinology

  1. Appraise the use of glucagon for the diagnosis of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia.
  2. Appreciate the pattern of growth hormone (GH) secretion in psychosocial deprivation.
  3. Assess the effect of stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
  4. Assess the incidence of complications in type 1 versus type 2 diabetes.
  5. Calculate and interpret sensitivity and specificity.
  6. Describe phenotypic consequences of translocation of SRY.
  7. Describe the clinical phenotype of growth hormone (GH) resistance syndromes.
  8. Describe the effect of altered binding proteins on the direct free thyroxine assay.
  9. Describe the effects of steroid excess on the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis.
  10. Describe the potential adverse consequences of methimazole treatment.
  11. Describe the role of G-protein signaling defects in endocrine disorders.
  12. Determine the indications for drug treatment of elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in diabetes.
  13. Diagnose a patient with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resistance.
  14. Differentiate between Cushing disease and ectopic adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) production.
  15. Differentiate clinical syndromes associated with serotonin versus vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) excess.
  16. Differentiate the effect of various gonadal steroids on sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).
  17. Distinguish constitutional delay from growth disorders.
  18. Distinguish constitutional delay of puberty from hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
  19. Distinguish familial hypercholesterolemia from dyslipidemia associated with obesity.
  20. Distinguish familial hyperthyroxinemic dysalbuminemia from thyrotoxicosis.
  21. Distinguish various causes of hypophosphatemia.
  22. Distinguish various causes of neonatal hypercalcemia.
  23. Evaluate disorders of testosterone biosynthesis.
  24. Evaluate patients with DAX1 mutation.
  25. Evaluate the pitfalls of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) measurement in nutritional deficiency.
  26. Identify how age and sex affect circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels.
  27. Identify risk factors for iodine deficiency as an etiology of hypothyroidism.
  28. Identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency.
  29. Identify the endocrine presentations of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1.
  30. Incorporate new advances in the management of adrenoleukodystrophy.
  31. Interpret mean and standard deviation in normally distributed data sets.
  32. Know the medications that cause syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).
  33. Manage a child with hypoparathyroidism.
  34. Manage a patient with euthyroid goiter.
  35. Predict the most common cognitive deficit in Klinefelter syndrome.
  36. Recognize different causes of acquired primary adrenal insufficiency.
  37. Recognize the action profile of insulin analogues.
  38. Recognize the endocrine response to fasting.
  39. Recognize the fetal complications of maternal type 1 diabetes.
  40. Recognize the indications for SHOX gene testing.
  41. Recognize the relative androgenicity of different progestin preparations in oral contraceptive pills (OCPs).
  42. Recognize the risk factors for cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis.
  43. Recognize the risk of associated autoimmune diseases in a child with type 1 diabetes.
  44. Recognize the role of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in aldosterone secretion.
  45. Recommend the timing of thyroidectomy in a child with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)2.

Pediatric Gastroenterology

  1. Be familiar with causes, evaluation, and management of pediatric malnutrition, including z-scores.
  2. Describe the genesis and genetics of Hirschsprung disease.
  3. Describe the mechanisms protecting the gastric mucosa from acid injury and disturbances in these that cause peptic ulcer disease.
  4. Develop a differential diagnosis and diagnostic evaluation for children with chronic liver failure.
  5. Diagnose and treat infectious esophagitis.
  6. Identify acute gallbladder hydrops, understand its associated illnesses and clinical presentation, and formulate a management plan.
  7. Identify and manage complications of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, including ascites, cardiopulmonary manifestations, and variceal hemorrhage.
  8. Identify underlying conditions associated with villous atrophy, dysmotility, bacterial overgrowth, and immunodeficiency syndromes that cause malabsorption.
  9. Interpret esophageal manometry studies.
  10. Know the adverse effects of products used for constipation, including bulking agents, stool softeners, and laxatives.
  11. Know the age-related differential diagnosis for chronic abdominal pain in a pediatric patient.
  12. Know the appropriate use of mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and standard error of the mean.
  13. Know the common extraintestinal manifestations of functional gastrointestinal disorders.
  14. Know the endoscopic and histologic features of eosinophilic esophagitis.
  15. Know the epidemiology and risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
  16. Know the extraintestinal anomalies commonly associated with omphalocele and gastroschisis.
  17. Know the indications of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children with pancreaticobiliary diseases.
  18. Know the mechanism of action of various laxatives.
  19. Know the medical management options for both perforated and unperforated appendicitis, including the use of antibiotics before and after operation.
  20. Know the potential complications of Helicobacter pylori infection including gastritis, ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).
  21. Know the risk factors and modes of transmission for hepatitis A and E.
  22. Know the roles of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the context of clinical motility disorders, including acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, cholecystokinin, nitric oxide, somatostatin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide.
  23. Know the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with vomiting, including metabolic, anatomic, infectious, inflammatory, and neuromuscular.
  24. Know which intestinal parasites are likely to be found in travelers returning from various parts of the world.
  25. Plan the diagnostic evaluation for gastroesophageal reflux disease recognizing the limitations of available diagnostic tests.
  26. Plan the management of morbid obesity, including indications for and complications of bariatric surgery.
  27. Plan the nutritional assessment and management of critically ill children in intensive care.
  28. Plan the nutritional management for catch-up growth of a child with failure to thrive, including determination of protein and energy requirements.
  29. Recognize oral findings in vitamin deficiencies.
  30. Recognize psychological or behavioral problems in children having gastrointestinal illnesses.
  31. Recognize radiologic findings of vascular anomalies causing dysphagia.
  32. Recognize symptoms and findings of gastric perforation.
  33. Recognize the age-related presentations of gastroesophageal reflux disease.
  34. Recognize the distinctions in presentation and management between omphalocele and gastroschisis in the newborn.
  35. Recognize the features of secretory tumors affecting the gut, including multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes.
  36. Recognize the radiographic appearance of acute and chronic pancreatitis by abdominal computed tomography scan, abdominal ultrasound, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
  37. Recognize the risk factors, diagnostic criteria, management, and natural history of focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatic adenoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  38. Understand and interpret laboratory tests used for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
  39. Understand gastrointestinal endoscopic techniques, including appropriate patient preparation and proper use of personal protective equipment.
  40. Understand indications of endoscopic ultrasound in children with gastrointestinal illnesses.
  41. Understand the basis of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, factors that can affect the efficacy, and criteria for optimizing therapy.
  42. Understand the ethical principles that require an intervention against religious practices.
  43. Understand the nutritional requirements of children with neurological impairment.
  44. Understand the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of intestinal inflammation.
  45. Understand the role of Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease.

Pediatric Hematology-Oncology

  1. Apply a likelihood ratio to medical decision making.
  2. Apply quality improvement measures for patient safety.
  3. Calculate and interpret sensitivity and specificity.
  4. Choose the appropriate statistical test for nonparametric data.
  5. Compare and contrast the principles and applications of different research study designs.
  6. Compare different imaging modalities used to assess response to therapy in Hodgkin lymphoma.
  7. Compare the differences in selection, engraftment, and risk for graft-versus-host disease among the different stem-cell sources utilized for hematopoietic stem-cell transplant.
  8. Describe the criteria that define central nervous system involvement in acute lymphocytic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia.
  9. Develop a treatment plan for a child with acquired aplastic anemia.
  10. Develop a treatment plan for a pediatric patient with chronic myeloid leukemia.
  11. Diagnose and manage a patient with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.
  12. Diagnose and manage patients with macrothrombocytopenia.
  13. Diagnose and manage vitamin K deficiency.
  14. Distinguish between different presentations of alpha-thalassemia syndromes.
  15. Evaluate a child with pancytopenia.
  16. Evaluate a patient with microcytic anemia.
  17. Evaluate a patient with splenomegaly.
  18. Evaluate a patient with thrombocytosis.
  19. Evaluate and diagnose a patient with an abdominal mass.
  20. Evaluate and manage a child with medulloblastoma.
  21. Evaluate and manage a febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction.
  22. Evaluate and manage a patient with central nervous system germ-cell tumor.
  23. Evaluate and manage a patient with eosinophilia.
  24. Evaluate and manage a patient with Ewing sarcoma.
  25. Evaluate and manage a patient with macrocytic anemia.
  26. Evaluate and manage a patient with non-rhabdomyomatous soft tissue sarcoma.
  27. Evaluate and manage a patient with teratoma.
  28. Evaluate and treat iron deficiency anemia.
  29. Identify appropriate chemotherapy regimens for hepatoblastoma based on stage and histology.
  30. Identify appropriate treatment regimens for Wilms tumor based on stage and histology.
  31. Identify features specific to and treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  32. Identify patient risk factors associated with developing chronic immune thrombocytopenia.
  33. Identify risk factors and preventative strategies for cardiotoxicity with antineoplastic therapy.
  34. Identify significant clinical prognostic risk factors for acute lymphocytic leukemia.
  35. Identify the indications for allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant for myeloproliferative disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, etc).
  36. Interpret von Willebrand factor testing.
  37. Know how to screen for stroke risk in a patient with sickle cell disease.
  38. Know the emicizumab mechanism of action and its impact on coagulation testing.
  39. Manage a child with Diamond-Blackfan anemia.
  40. Manage direct oral anticoagulant therapy for venous thrombosis.
  41. Manage life-threatening hemorrhage in a patient on warfarin therapy.
  42. Manage patients receiving alkylating agents, including mechanism of action, short-term toxicities, and supportive care.
  43. Manage the complications associated with tumor lysis syndrome.
  44. Manage thrombopoietin mimetics in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.
  45. Recognize and diagnose neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.
  46. Recognize and manage acute chest syndrome in a patient with sickle cell disease.
  47. Recognize and manage autoimmune neutropenia.
  48. Recognize and manage fungal infections in an immunocompromised host.
  49. Recognize aplastic anemia as a symptom of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
  50. Recognize clinical features of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
  51. Recognize indications for plasmapheresis.
  52. Recognize the clinical presentation of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.
  53. Recognize the risk factors for and clinical and laboratory manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease.
  54. Recognize the risk factors for neuropathic pain and understand its management.
  55. Understand the biology, epidemiology, staging, and prognostic factors for a patient with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
  56. Understand the clinical and molecular features of prognostic importance in neuroblastoma.
  57. Understand the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and treatment of transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) associated with hematopoietic stem-cell transplant.
  58. Understand the differences between the A- and other glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants.
  59. Understand the molecular etiology, surveillance recommendations, and epidemiology of leukemias associated with Down syndrome.
  60. Understand the physical features, molecular etiology, surveillance recommendations, and associated cancers in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
  61. Understand the principles and management of acute and delayed therapy-induced vomiting.
  62. Understand the principles of pain assessment and treatment.
  63. Understand the role of ABO testing and compatibility in platelet transfusions.
  64. Understand the role of blood product irradiation.
  65. Understand the role of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  66. Understand the special considerations in conditioning regimen selection for patients with DNA repair defects such as Fanconi anemia or dyskeratosis congenita.
  67. Understand which components of the hemostatic system are measured by coagulation testing.

Pediatric Hospital Medicine

  1. Evaluate an infant with global hypotonia.
  2. Evaluate a child with inflammatory neuropathy (ie, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome).
  3. Compare clinical presentation of retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses.
  4. List the factors for complications of sinusitis.
  5. Recognize and manage acute respiratory failure.
  6. Treat acute respiratory distress in a patient with neuromuscular disease.
  7. Describe the clinical manifestation of pediatric heart failure.
  8. Recognize clinical manifestation of rheumatic fever.
  9. Direct the diagnostic evaluation of acute abdomen in a child (ie, obstruction, peritonitis, etc.).
  10. Manage a child hospitalized with acute pancreatitis, including complications (such as ileus, pseudocyst, and necrotizing pancreatitis).
  11. Evaluate and manage a child with pelvic pain (PID).
  12. Diagnose and manage urinary tract infection (UTI) including UTI in children with vesicoureteral reflux and/or hydronephrosis.
  13. Identify types of complex medical conditions that place patients at risk for fractures due to osteopenia.
  14. Diagnose a child with lupus and related complications.
  15. Evaluate a child with a vasculitic rash.
  16. Recognize syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in a postoperative pediatric patient.
  17. Recognize and treat signs of cerebral edema in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis.
  18. Differentiate injury patterns that are suspicious for inflicted/nonaccidental injury in children.
  19. Interpret common dermatological manifestations of systemic illnesses including bacterial and viral infections, and rheumatologic and genetic conditions.
  20. Diagnose a child with new onset of anemia.
  21. Provide urgent treatment for a child with a bleeding disorder.
  22. Specify the inpatient evaluation of a child with possible immunodeficiency.
  23. Analyze the results of a urine toxicology screen.
  24. Stratify the potential risks of various animal bites.
  25. Evaluate a child with a brief resolved unexplained event (BRUE).
  26. Develop a differential diagnosis of failure to thrive.
  27. Manage electrolyte abnormalities.
  28. Evaluate acid-base imbalance.
  29. Develop an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of a pediatric patient with a psychosomatic disorder.
  30. Select the appropriate diagnostic evaluation to assess for refeeding syndrome.
  31. Distinguish between the mechanisms of action of common drugs used to treat depression, psychosis, and agitation.
  32. Identify common clinical presentations of newborns with seizures.
  33. Choose the appropriate initial management for a newborn with direct hyperbilirubinemia.
  34. Formulate an initial treatment plan for an infant born to a mother with active herpes simplex virus infection.
  35. Identify appropriate referrals based on results of a cardiac examination, chest radiography, and pre- and post-ductal saturation in a term, immediate newborn.
  36. Investigate a feeding tube malfunction in a child with medical complexity.
  37. Identify the risks of polypharmacy in a child with medical complexity.
  38. Describe reasons for changing a tracheostomy tube.
  39. Demonstrate shared decision-making with a patient and/or family.
  40. Examine the impact of ineffective handoffs and transitions of care on patient safety and quality of care.
  41. Contrast root cause analysis, failure modes, and effects analysis.
  42. Choose categories for an effective fishbone/cause-effect/Ishikawa diagram.
  43. Apply the following terms: relative risk, absolute risk, number needed to treat, number needed to harm.
  44. Compare and contrast per diem reimbursement, diagnosis-related group-based reimbursement, cost-based reimbursement, episode of care, at-risk compensation, and value-based purchasing.
  45. Describe the principles of team leadership and change management.
  46. Compare and contrast ethics consultation, ethics committee, institutional review board, emancipated minor, child protective services, mandated reporting, and court-order.
  47. Formulate a plan for bedside teaching with a ward team consisting of multiple levels of learners.
  48. Apply reported predictive values from research studies in order to interpret the results of a test.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases

  1. Advise a child care center regarding return to child care policy for children with Salmonella infection.
  2. Describe the mechanism of T-cell tropism of HIV.
  3. Diagnose and plan the management of a patient with chronic osteomyelitis.
  4. Evaluate a child for possible inhalational anthrax.
  5. Identify the pathogens that cause invasive disease in children with cirrhosis.
  6. Interpret serologic studies to distinguish previous hepatitis B infection from response to previous hepatitis B vaccine.
  7. Interpret susceptibility test results for Enterococcus isolates.
  8. Interpret the results of diagnostic tests for HIV infection in infants.
  9. Know the antiviral therapy for children with chronic hepatitis C.
  10. Manage a child with repeated episodes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus superficial skin infection.
  11. Manage a child with soft tissue infection caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria.
  12. Manage a neonate with suspected congenital syphilis.
  13. Manage a patient with cutaneous sporotrichosis.
  14. Manage a patient with necrotizing pneumonia.
  15. Manage a patient with suspected mastoiditis.
  16. Manage the antiviral treatment of symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the central nervous system.
  17. Outline the evidence regarding anti-inflammatory therapy in the treatment of septic shock.
  18. Plan antimicrobial therapy for a patient with a penetrating injury of the eye.
  19. Plan prophylaxis against Pneumocystis in a child with a history of allergy to sulfonamides.
  20. Plan the antimicrobial therapy of a child with lung abscess.
  21. Plan the evaluation of an adolescent with inguinal lymph node enlargement.
  22. Plan the management of a child with an accidental needle stick exposure during outdoor play.
  23. Plan the management of a child with neurocysticercosis.
  24. Recognize CSF findings associated with tuberculous meningitis.
  25. Recognize indications for IGIM administration after measles exposure.
  26. Recognize indications for linezolid use in children.
  27. Recognize situations in which continuous antibiotic infusion may be preferred over intermittent dosing.
  28. Recognize situations in which diagnostic testing for intestinal nematodes is appropriate.
  29. Recognize the advantages of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines compared with previous polysaccharide vaccines.
  30. Recognize the causes of myocarditis.
  31. Recognize the clinical presentation of a child with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
  32. Recognize the clinical presentation of coccidioidomycosis.
  33. Recognize the clinical presentation of postinfectious acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
  34. Recognize the clinical presentations of ciliary dyskinesia.
  35. Recognize the effect of disease prevalence on the interpretation of a diagnostic test.
  36. Recognize the elements of the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle.
  37. Recognize the indications for liposomal preparations of amphotericin B.
  38. Recognize the mechanisms of resistance to macrolide antibiotics.
  39. Recognize the options for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in children.
  40. Recognize the pathogens causing invasive disease in patients with deficiencies of terminal complement components, properdin, and factor D.
  41. Recognize the risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infections.
  42. Recommend appropriate precautions for a patient with possible Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.
  43. Understand indications for obtaining throat swabs for group A streptococcus testing.
  44. Understand the differential diagnosis of a child with fever after a transfusion.
  45. Understand the negative effects of antibiotic exposure on microbiome diversity.

Pediatric Nephrology

  1. Apply laboratory and imaging tests for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension.
  2. Appraise the ethical principles involved in decisions on whether to initiate dialysis in children.
  3. Calculate and interpret sensitivity and specificity.
  4. Choose appropriate therapy for hyperkalemia based on clinical and laboratory findings.
  5. Describe the noninfectious complications of immunosuppression.
  6. Develop a diagnostic and treatment plan for a hypertensive dialysis patient.
  7. Develop a management/monitoring plan for the renal manifestations of tuberous sclerosis.
  8. Develop a treatment plan based on the clinical and laboratory findings of hypophosphatemic rickets.
  9. Differentiate between disease incidence and prevalence.
  10. Differentiate between the causes of hyponatremia.
  11. Differentiate the nephrotoxic risk of various medications.
  12. Identify indications for and timing of surgical interventions for children with vesicoureteral reflux.
  13. Interpret results of a peritoneal equilibration test (PET) in a child receiving peritoneal dialysis.
  14. Interpret urine microscopy in patients with a kidney stone.
  15. Know how to calculate fractional sodium excretion.
  16. Know the absolute and relative contraindications to kidney transplantation.
  17. Know the appropriate blood pressure reduction targets in patients with chronic kidney disease.
  18. Know the effects and side effects of commonly used classes of antihypertensive medications.
  19. Know the etiology of urolithiasis.
  20. Know the indications for kidney biopsy in a patient with hematuria.
  21. Know the natural history of IgA nephropathy.
  22. Plan the diagnostic evaluation of a patient with hypercalciuria.
  23. Plan the management of a patient with acute allograft dysfunction.
  24. Plan the management of a patient with neurogenic bladder and incontinence.
  25. Plan the management of heparin-free hemodialysis.
  26. Plan the management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.
  27. Plan the nutritional regimen for an infant who is receiving peritoneal dialysis.
  28. Plan the treatment of a patient with hepatorenal syndrome.
  29. Plan treatment for electrolyte aberrations in alkalosis based on etiology.
  30. Predict the complications of acute peritoneal dialysis.
  31. Recognize histologic and clinical manifestations associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome.
  32. Recognize potential pitfalls associated with screening asymptomatic children of adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
  33. Recognize risk factors for post-transplant cytomegalovirus infection.
  34. Recognize risk factors for progression of chronic kidney disease in childhood.
  35. Recognize the clinical and laboratory manifestations of an electrolyte abnormality secondary to cystinosis.
  36. Recognize the potential etiologies and plan the evaluation of a child with chronic kidney disease who has a first seizure.
  37. Recognize the risk factors for poor school performance in children with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.
  38. Understand normal and abnormal renal findings in premature infants.
  39. Understand the diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis-associated glomerular disease.
  40. Understand the diagnostic criteria/laboratory abnormalities that characterize the thrombotic microangiopathies.
  41. Understand the extrarenal implications of oligohydramnios or urinary tract obstruction.
  42. Understand the implications of different genetic causes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
  43. Understand the increasing risk of complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on advancing CKD stage.
  44. Understand the laboratory and disease characteristics of primary versus secondary glomerular disease.
  45. Understand the role of podocyte dysfunction in the pathophysiology of minimal change disease.

Pediatric Pulmonology

  1. Apply current guidelines for nutritional monitoring and management.
  2. Assess the likelihood of bronchiolitis obliterans based on history and radiographic and lung function findings.
  3. Assess the risk factors for development of a pleuropulmonary blastoma in a patient with a congenital pulmonary airway malformation.
  4. Calculate the odds of a child inheriting asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy based upon the parents’ genotypes.
  5. Decide the most appropriate treatment for acute viral bronchiolitis.
  6. Describe pulmonary effects of diabetes on infants born to mothers with diabetes.
  7. Describe the basic science and pathophysiologic basis of bronchospasm/bronchoconstriction and its evaluation.
  8. Describe the effects of chronic exposure to high altitude on lung growth and development.
  9. Describe the epidemiology and pathophysiologic basis of asthma.
  10. Describe the risk factors for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
  11. Develop a care plan for an adolescent with morbid obesity with severe obstructive sleep apnea.
  12. Develop differential diagnosis for lung diseases based on time since a bone marrow transplant.
  13. Diagnose obstructive hypoventilation using polysomnography results.
  14. Differentiate between mechanics measurements (eg, Compliance, Resistance) for the respiratory system and for the lung.
  15. Discuss how to perform and interpret spirometry.
  16. Discuss the clinical phenotype of primary ciliary dyskinesia.
  17. Discuss the etiologies of chronic cough during childhood.
  18. Distinguish bias and confounding.
  19. Distinguish cell differentials in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from uninfected healthy children and children with an endobronchial bacterial infection.
  20. Distinguish methods to monitor patients after lung transplantation.
  21. Evaluate a patient with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) for common non-pulmonary complications (arrhythmia, neuroblastoma, Hirschsprung disease).
  22. Evaluate and manage adolescents with asthma.
  23. Explain the components of respiratory system mechanics that increase the risk of respiratory distress in the newborn infant.
  24. Explain the role of invasive ventilation in the management of respiratory distress in the newborn infant.
  25. Identify alveolar capillary dysplasia with misaligned pulmonary vessels based upon clinical presentation and diagnostic evaluation.
  26. Identify etiologies of dry, recurrent cough in children.
  27. Identify extrapulmonary causes of respiratory failure.
  28. Identify resident pulmonary inflammatory cells and their function.
  29. Identify the congenital lung malformations that occur during the pseudoglandular stage of development.
  30. Identify the differential diagnoses of crackles noted on respiratory examination.
  31. Interpret the diagnostic workup for a child with a laryngeal cleft.
  32. Interpret the exercise test results of a person with isolated pectus excavatum.
  33. Interpret the results of a non-inferiority trial design.
  34. Know that apnea of prematurity generally resolves by 36 to 37 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) in premature infants born approximately 28 weeks and that infants born at less than 28 weeks may have apnea that persists past 38 weeks' PMA  or know the expected time course for apnea of prematurity.
  35. Recognize chest radiographic features suggestive of viral, bacterial, and atypical pneumonia.
  36. Recognize risk factors for pulmonary edema.
  37. Recognize that pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis does not present after 8 months of age.
  38. Recognize the areas supplied by the bronchial circulation, including the parenchyma and pleura.
  39. Recognize the criteria for diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
  40. Recognize the symptoms of chronic respiratory failure.
  41. Relate mental health of patients and caregivers to adherence and disease outcome.
  42. Review the modalities used to diagnose a patient with pulmonary vein stenosis.
  43. Select appropriate chronic maintenance therapies for cystic fibrosis based on current guidelines.
  44. Understand the epidemiology, pathophysiologic basis, and the differential diagnosis of environmental injuries and exposures.
  45. Use cytology data to diagnose Langerhans cell histiocytosis and in the evaluation of as cystic lung disease.

Pediatric Rheumatology

  1. Interpret positive and negative predictive values.
  2. Know current theories regarding the pathophysiology of macrophage activation syndrome.
  3. Know how to evaluate adherence to a treatment program (eg, pill counting, lack of side effects, drug concentrations, and physical therapy cancellations).
  4. Know the classes of innate lymphoid cells and their importance in immune responses.
  5. Know the clinical characteristics of children with musculoskeletal manifestations with chromosomal disorders.
  6. Know the clinical presentation and differential diagnosis of children with inflammatory bowel disease-associated arthropathies.
  7. Know the clinical presentation of children with Behçet syndrome.
  8. Know the clinical presentation of children with hypersensitivity vasculitis and serum sickness.
  9. Know the clinical presentation of children with psoriatic JIA.
  10. Know the clinical presentation of children with sarcoidosis and Blau syndrome.
  11. Know the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and differential diagnosis of children with osteomyelitis.
  12. Know the consequences and principal side effects of JAK inhibitors.
  13. Know the diagnostic evaluation of children with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.
  14. Know the diagnostic evaluation of children with Kawasaki disease.
  15. Know the diagnostic evaluation of children with primary angiitis of the central nervous system.
  16. Know the diagnostic evaluation of children with RF-positive polyarticular JIA.
  17. Know the diagnostic evaluation of systemic sclerosis in children.
  18. Know the differential diagnosis for children with oligoarticular JIA.
  19. Know the differential diagnosis for children with SLE.
  20. Know the differential diagnosis in children with generalized or localized pain.
  21. Know the epidemiology of RF-negative polyarticular JIA.
  22. Know the initial diagnostic evaluation of hematologic disorders that mimic rheumatic illnesses.
  23. Know the mechanism of action, consequences, and toxicity of cyclosporine A/calcineurin inhibitors.
  24. Know the mechanism of action, consequences, and toxicity of IL-6-directed therapy.
  25. Know the mucocutaneous manifestations of SLE in children.
  26. Know the pathogenesis of osteoporosis/osteopenia.
  27. Know the principal cytokines that drive T and B cell development and activation.
  28. Know the principles of management and diagnosis for children with systemic sclerosis lung disease.
  29. Know the principles of management of children with calcinosis.
  30. Know the principles of management of children with juvenile ankylosing spondylitis.
  31. Know the principles of management of children with lymphedema.
  32. Know the principles of management of children with polyarteritis nodosa.
  33. Know the principles of management of children with Sjögren syndrome.
  34. Know the principles of management of hematologic involvement in children with SLE.
  35. Know the principles of management of the musculoskeletal manifestations of arthritis in children with SLE.
  36. Know the prognosis and outcome of children with juvenile ankylosing spondylitis.
  37. Know the recurrence risk and management strategies for neonatal lupus.
  38. Know the rheumatologic manifestations of bleeding disorders.
  39. Know the side effects and toxicity of mycophenolate.
  40. Recognize the clinical presentation of autoimmunity in children with immune deficiency disorders presenting as autoimmune disorders.
  41. Recognize the clinical presentation of calcinosis in children with idiopathic inflammatory myositis.
  42. Recognize the clinical presentation of common overuse injuries and know how to manage them.
  43. Recognize the differences between juvenile dermatomyositis and polymyositis.
  44. Recognize the types of IFNs and know the significance, cellular sources, and principal actions of type I and type II IFNs.
  45. Understand the difference between association and causation.
  46. Understand the indications and contraindications for the use of vaccinations in children with rheumatic illnesses.
  47. Understand the mechanism of action of JAK inhibitors.
  48. Understand the role for splints and assistive devices (eg, risks, indications, and contraindications).
  49. Understand the types of validity that relate to measurement (eg, face, construct, criterion, predictive, content).
  50. Understand when to use and how to interpret tests comparing continuous variables between three or more groups (eg, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis)
 

Preliminary Featured Reading Selections for 2022

Disclosure: 2022 MOCA-Peds featured readings have not been finalized and are subject to change. The final list will be available by Nov. 1, 2021.

Those engaged in MOCA-Peds will have access to these articles, at no additional charge, during the year they are featured. Until then, you might need a subscription to access some of these articles.

General Pediatrics

Armstrong SC, Bolling CF, Michalsky MP, Reichard KW; Section on Obesity, Section on Surgery. Pediatric Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery: Evidence, Barriers, and Best Practices. Pediatrics. 2019;144(6):e20193223. doi:10.1542/peds.2019-3223
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31656225/

Hyman SL, Levy SE, Myers SM; Council on Children with Disabilities, Section on Developmental And Behavioral Pediatrics. Identification, Evaluation, and Management of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pediatrics. 2020;145(1):e20193447. doi:10.1542/peds.2019-3447
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31843864/

Adolescent Medicine

Grubb LK, Powers M; Committee on Adolescence. Emerging Issues in Male Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Care. Pediatrics. 2020;145(5):e20200627. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-0627
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32341182/

Rafferty J; Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health; Committee on Adolescence; Section on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health and Wellness. Ensuring Comprehensive Care and Support for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics. 2018;142(4):e20182162. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-2162
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30224363/

Trent M, Dooley DG, Dougé J; Section on Adolescent Health, AAP Council on Community Pediatrics, AAP Committee on Adolescence. The Impact of Racism on Child and Adolescent Health. Pediatrics. 2019;144(2):e20191765. doi:10.1542/peds.2019-1765
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31358665/

Child Abuse Pediatrics

Edwards, G. A., Maguire, S. A., Gaither, J. R., and Leventhal, J. M. (2020) What Do Confessions Reveal about Abusive Head Trauma? A Systematic Review. Child Abuse Rev. 29: 253– 268. https://doi.org/10.1002/car.2627
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/car.2627

Laird JJ, Klettke B, Hall K, Clancy E, Hallford D. Demographic and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Child Sexual Exploitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(9):e2017682. Published 2020 Sep 1. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17682
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32960280/

Mitchell IC, Norat BJ, Auerbach M, et al. Identifying Maltreatment in Infants and Young Children Presenting With Fractures: Does Age Matter? Acad Emerg Med. 2021;28(1):5-18. doi:10.1111/acem.14122
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32888348/

Segal L, Armfield JM, Gnanamanickam ES, et al. Child Maltreatment and Mortality in Young Adults. Pediatrics. 2021;147(1):e2020023416. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-023416
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33318224/

Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics

Barbaresi WJ, Campbell L, Diekroger EA, et al. Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Clinical Practice Guideline for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Complex Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2020;41 Suppl 2S:S35-S57. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000770
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31996577/

Gallagher ER, Collett BR. Neurodevelopmental and Academic Outcomes in Children with Orofacial Clefts: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics. 2019;144(1):e20184027. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-4027
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31189616/

Jones VF, Schulte EE, Waite D; Council on Foster Care, Adoption, and Kinship Care. Pediatrician Guidance in Supporting Families of Children Who Are Adopted, Fostered, or in Kinship Care. Pediatrics. 2020;146(6):e2020034629. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-034629
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33229466/

Williams Buckley A, Hirtz D, Oskoui M, et al. Practice guideline: Treatment for insomnia and disrupted sleep behavior in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2020;94(9):392-404. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000009033
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32051244/

Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine

Brown JVE, Meader N, Wright K, Cleminson J, McGuire W. Assessment of C-Reactive Protein Diagnostic Test Accuracy for Late-Onset Infection in Newborn Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis [published correction appears in JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Jun 1;174(6):625]. JAMA Pediatr. 2020;174(3):260-268. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.5669
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32011640/

Manley BJ, Arnolda GRB, Wright IMR, et al. Nasal High-Flow Therapy for Newborn Infants in Special Care Nurseries. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(21):2031-2040. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1812077
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31116919/

van Kempen AAMW, Eskes PF, Nuytemans DHGM, et al. Lower versus Traditional Treatment Threshold for Neonatal Hypoglycemia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(6):534-544. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1905593
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32023373/

Pediatric Cardiology

Goldberg DJ, Zak V, Goldstein BH, et al. Results of the FUEL Trial [published correction appears in Circulation. 2020 Jul 14;142(2):e31]. Circulation. 2020;141(8):641-651. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044352
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31736357/

Henderson LA, Canna SW, Friedman KG, et al. American College of Rheumatology Clinical Guidance for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated with SARS-CoV-2 and Hyperinflammation in Pediatric COVID-19: Version 2. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2021;73(4):e13-e29. doi:10.1002/art.41616
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33277976/

Ommen SR, Mital S, Burke MA, et al. 2020 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2020;142(25):e533-e557. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000938
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33215938/

Pierpont ME, Brueckner M, Chung WK, et al. Genetic Basis for Congenital Heart Disease: Revisited: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association [published correction appears in Circulation. 2018 Nov 20;138(21):e713]. Circulation. 2018;138(21):e653-e711. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000606
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30571578/

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Feld LG, Neuspiel DR, Foster BA, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Maintenance Intravenous Fluids in Children. Pediatrics. 2018;142(6):e20183083. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-3083
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30478247/

Spinella PC, Tucci M, Fergusson DA, et al. Effect of Fresh vs Standard-issue Red Blood Cell Transfusions on Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;322(22):2179-2190. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.17478
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31821429/

Valentine SL, Bembea MM, Muszynski JA, et al. Consensus Recommendations for RBC Transfusion Practice in Critically Ill Children from the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9):884-898. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000001613
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30180125/

Weiss SL, Peters MJ, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(Suppl 1):10-67. doi:10.1007/s00134-019-05878-6
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32030529/

Pediatric Emergency Medicine

Duff JP, Topjian AA, Berg MD, et al. 2019 American Heart Association Focused Update on Pediatric Advanced Life Support: An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2019;140(24):e904-e914. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000731
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31722551/

Feld LG, Neuspiel DR, Foster BA, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Maintenance Intravenous Fluids in Children. Pediatrics. 2018;142(6):e20183083. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-3083
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30478247/

Green SM, Roback MG, Krauss BS, et al. Unscheduled Procedural Sedation: A Multidisciplinary Consensus Practice Guideline. Ann Emerg Med. 2019;73(5):e51-e65. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.02.022
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31029297/

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. Critical Crossroads Pediatric Mental Health Care in the Emergency Department: A Care Pathway Resource Toolkit. Rockville, Maryland: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2019.
https://www.hrsa.gov/sites/default/files/hrsa/critical-crossroads/critical-crossroads-tool.pdf

Pediatric Endocrinology

Pratt JSA, Browne A, Browne NT, et al. ASMBS pediatric metabolic and bariatric surgery guidelines, 2018. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2018;14(7):882-901. doi:10.1016/j.soard.2018.03.019
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30077361/

Spencer T, Pan KS, Collins MT, Boyce AM. The Clinical Spectrum of McCune-Albright Syndrome and Its Management. Horm Res Paediatr. 2019;92(6):347-356. doi:10.1159/000504802
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31865341/

Pediatric Gastroenterology

Husby S, Koletzko S, Korponay-Szabó I, et al. European Society Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Guidelines for Diagnosing Coeliac Disease 2020. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020;70(1):141-156. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000002497
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31568151/

Kelsen JR, Sullivan KE, Rabizadeh S, et al. North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Position Paper on the Evaluation and Management for Patients with Very Early-onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020;70(3):389-403. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000002567
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32079889/

Liu QY, Gugig R, Troendle DM, et al. The Roles of Endoscopic Ultrasound and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in the Evaluation and Treatment of Chronic Pancreatitis in Children: A Position Paper from the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Pancreas Committee. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020;70(5):681-693. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000002664
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32332479/

Mouzaki M, Bronsky J, Gupte G, et al. Nutrition Support of Children with Chronic Liver Diseases: A Joint Position Paper of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019;69(4):498-511. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000002443
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31436707/

Pediatric Hematology-Oncology

Brown P, Inaba H, Annesley C, et al. Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Version 2.2020, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2020;18(1):81-112. doi:10.6004/jnccn.2020.0001
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31910389/

Chou ST, Alsawas M, Fasano RM, et al. American Society of Hematology 2020 guidelines for sickle cell disease: transfusion support. Blood Adv. 2020;4(2):327-355. doi:10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001143
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31985807/

Connell NT, Flood VH, Brignardello-Petersen R, et al. ASH ISTH NHF WFH 2021 guidelines on the management of von Willebrand disease. Blood Adv. 2021;5(1):301-325. doi:10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003264
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33570647/

Minard-Colin V, Aupérin A, Pillon M, et al. Rituximab for High-Risk, Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Children. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(23):2207-2219. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1915315
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32492302/

Pediatric Hospital Medicine

Henderson LA, Canna SW, Friedman KG, et al. American College of Rheumatology Clinical Guidance for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated with SARS-CoV-2 and Hyperinflammation in Pediatric COVID-19: Version 2. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2021;73(4):e13-e29. doi:10.1002/art.41616
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33277976/

Money NM, Schroeder AR, Quinonez RA, et al. 2019 Update on Pediatric Medical Overuse: A Systematic Review. JAMA Pediatr. 2020;174(4):375-382. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.5849
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32011675/

Weiss SL, Peters MJ, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(Suppl 1):10-67. doi:10.1007/s00134-019-05878-6
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32030529/

Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Erickson TA, Muscal E, Munoz FM, et al. Infectious and Autoimmune Causes of Encephalitis in Children. Pediatrics. 2020;145(6):e20192543. doi:10.1542/peds.2019-2543
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32358069/

Feldstein LR, Rose EB, Horwitz SM, et al. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in U.S. Children and Adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(4):334-346. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2021680
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32598831/

Zimmermann P, Curtis N. Coronavirus Infections in Children Including COVID-19: An Overview of the Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Options in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(5):355-368. doi:10.1097/INF.0000000000002660
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32310621/

Pediatric Nephrology

Dionne JM, Bremner SA, Baygani SK, et al. Method of Blood Pressure Measurement in Neonates and Infants: A Systematic Review and Analysis. J Pediatr. 2020;221:23-31.e5. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.02.072
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32446487/

Drube J, Wan M, Bonthuis M, et al. Clinical practice recommendations for growth hormone treatment in children with chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2019;15(9):577-589. doi:10.1038/s41581-019-0161-4
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31197263/

Shaw V, Polderman N, Renken-Terhaerdt J, et al. Energy and protein requirements for children with CKD stages 2-5 and on dialysis-clinical practice recommendations from the Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce. Pediatr Nephrol. 2020;35(3):519-531. doi:10.1007/s00467-019-04426-0
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31845057/

Pediatric Pulmonology

Chang AB, Oppenheimer JJ, Kahrilas PJ, et al. Chronic Cough and Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report. Chest. 2019;156(1):131-140. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2019.03.035
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31002783/

Expert Panel Working Group of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) administered and coordinated National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee (NAEPPCC), Cloutier MM, Baptist AP, et al. 2020 Focused Updates to the Asthma Management Guidelines: A Report from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee Expert Panel Working Group [published correction appears in J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021 Apr;147(4):1528-1530]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020;146(6):1217-1270. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2020.10.003
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33280709/ (Section IV)

Hayes D Jr, Wilson KC, Krivchenia K, et al. Home Oxygen Therapy for Children. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;199(3):e5-e23. doi:10.1164/rccm.201812-2276ST.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30707039/

Pediatric Rheumatology

Brunner HI, Abud-Mendoza C, Viola DO, et al. Safety and efficacy of intravenous belimumab in children with systemic lupus erythematosus: results from a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020;79(10):1340-1348. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217101
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32699034/

Brunner HI, Quartier P, Alexeeva E, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Canakinumab in Patients with Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis With and Without Fever at Baseline: Results From an Open-Label, Active-Treatment Extension Study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2020;72(12):2147-2158. doi:10.1002/art.41436
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32648697/