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Publications and Research Articles

January 2001 - current

Many of the research publications listed are supported by a grant from the American Board of Pediatric (ABP) Foundation to the University of Michigan’s Child Health Evaluation and Research Group (CHEAR), with Dr. Gary L. Freed as the principal investigator. The purpose of the ABP Foundation is to fund projects that may not be within the core mission of the ABP, but have the potential to improve the quality of care for children in a way that complements the work of the ABP. While oversight of this grant is through the Research Advisory Committee of the ABP, studies are conducted independently by Dr. Freed and staff at CHEAR. Neither the ABP nor the Research Advisory Committee embargoes the release of results. Complete and transparent data are submitted by Dr. Freed for publication in peer-review journals.

The following is a listing of select research articles that have been conducted within the past few years. Each article is linked to an abstract viewing engine (eg, PubMed). Readers can also contact the journal directly to obtain a full-text version.

  1. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK; Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Clinical Training Project: Current Fellows. Pediatrics. 2014; 133:S58-S63. 
  2. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK; Fellowship Program Directors Perspectives on Fellowship Training. Pediatrics. 2014; 133:S64-S69. 
  3. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK; Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Clinical Training Project: Recent Graduates and Midcareer Survey Comparison. Pediatrics. 2014; 133:S70-S75. 
  4. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK; Specialty Specific Comparisons Regarding Perspectives on Fellowship Training. Pediatrics. 2014; 133:S76-S77. 
  5. Freed GL, Dunham, KM, Martyn K, Nantais-Smith L, Moran LM.  Neonatal nurse practitioners: influences on career choice.  J Nurse Pract. 2013 Feb:9(2):82-86
  6. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Gebremariam A. Changes in hospitals' credentialing requirements for board certification from 2005 to 2010. J Hosp Med. J 2013 June;8(6):298-303. Epub 2013 Mar 29
  7. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Martyn K, Martin J, Moran LM, Spera L, the Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Pediatric nurse practioners: influences on career choice. J Pediatr Health Care. Epub ahead of print Feb 13, 2013
  8. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Resident work hour changes in children’s hospitals: impact on staffing patterns and workforce needs. Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):700 Epub Sept 10, 2012
  9. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. The pediatric workforce: an update on general pediatrics and pediatric subspecialties workforce data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr. 2011 Dec;159(6):1035-1040. Epub 2011 Sept 9
  10. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry C, Martyn KK, Moote MJ, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Nurse practioners and physician assistants employed by general and subspecialty pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2011 Oct;128(4):665-672. Epub 2011 Sept 2
  11. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry C, Martyn KK, Moote MJ, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Private practice rates among pediatric subspecialists. Pediatrics. 2011 Oct;128(4):673-676. Epub 2011 Sept 12
  12. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Lamarand KE, Loveland-Cherry C, Martyn KK, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Pediatric nurse practitioners: roles and scope of practice. Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):846-50. Epub 2010 Oct 18
  13. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry C, Martyn KK, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Family nurse practitioners: roles and scope of practice in the care of pediatric patients. Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):861-4. Epub 2010 Oct 18
  14. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry C, Martyn KK, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Neonatal nurse practitioners: distribution, roles and scope of practice. Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):856-60. Epub 2010 Oct 18
  15. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry C, Martyn KK, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Pediatric physician assistants: distribution and scope of practice. Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):851-5. Epub 2010 Oct 18
  16. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Jones MD Jr, McGuinness GA, Althouse LA. Longitudinal assessment of the timing of career choice among pediatric residents. Arch Pediar Adolesc Med. 2010 Oct;164(10):961-4
  17. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry CJ, Martyn KK, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Pediatric nurse practitioners in the United States: current distribution and recent trends in training. J Pediatr. 2010 May 27. (Epub ahead of print)
  18. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Clark SJ, Davis MM, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Perspectives and preferences among the general public regarding physician selection and board certification. J Pediatr. 2010 May;156(5):841-5, 845. Epub 2010 Feb 6.
  19. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Gebremariam A, Wheeler JRC, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Which pediatricians are providing care to America’s children? J Pediatr. 2010 Jul;157(1):148-152.e1. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
  20. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. All primary care trainees are not the same: the role of economic factors and career choice. Pediatrics. 2010;125(3);574-577. Epub 2010 Feb 1.
  21. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Lamarand KE, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Permanent pediatric diplomate awareness of and perspectives on maintenance of certification. J Pediatr. 2009 Dec;155(6):919-923.e1. Epub 2009 Oct 20
  22. Stockman JA, Freed GL. Adequacy of the supply of pediatric subspecialists: so near, yet so far. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009 Dec;163(12):1160-1.
  23. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Lamarand KE, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Hospitalists’ involvement in pediatric training: perspectives from pediatric residency program and clerkship directors. Acad Med. 2009 Nov;84(11):1617-21.
  24. Andreae MC, Dunham K, Freed GL. Inadequate training in billing and coding as perceived by recent pediatric graduates. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2009 Nov;48(9):939-44. Epub 2009 May 29.
  25. Althouse LA, Du Y, Ham HP. Confirming the validity of the general pediatrics certification examinations: a practice analysis. J Pediatr. 2009:155(2):155-156.e1
  26. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Switalski KE, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Assessing the value of pediatric hospitalist programs: the perspective of hospital leaders. Academic Pediatrics. 2009;9(3):192-196. .
  27. Freed GL, Stockman JA. Oversimplifying primary care supply and shortages. JAMA. 2009;301(18):1920-1922.
  28. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Characteristics of pediatric hospital medicine fellowships and training programs. Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2009 March;4(3):157-163.
  29. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Pediatric hospitalists: training, current practice, and career goals. Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2009 March;4(3):179-186.
  30. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Abraham LA, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Protecting the Public: State medical board licensure policies for active and inactive physicians. Pediatrics 2009;123(2):643-651.
  31. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Switalski, KE. Clinical inactivity among pediatricians: prevalence and perspectives. Pediatrics. 2009;123(2):605-610.
  32. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Jones MD Jr, McGuinness GA, Althouse LA, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. General pediatrics resident perspectives on training decisions and career choice. Pediatrics. 2009 Jan;123 (1suppl):S26-30.
  33. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Switalski KE, Jones MD Jr, McGuinness GA, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Pediatric fellows: perspectives on training and future scope of practice. Pediatrics. 2009 Jan;123 (1suppl):S31-37.
  34. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Switalski KE, Jones MD Jr, McGuinness GA, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Recently trained general pediatricians: perspectives on residency training and scope of practice. Pediatrics. 2009 Jan;123 (1 suppl):S38-43.
  35. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Switalski KE, Jones MD Jr, McGuinness GA, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Recently trained pediatric subspecialists: perspectives on training and scope of practice. Pediatrics 2009 Jan;123 (1 suppl):S44-49.
  36. Althouse LA, McGuinness GA. The in-training examination: An analysis of its predictive value on performance on the general pediatrics certification examination. J Pediatr 2008 Sep;153 (3);425-8
  37. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Althouse LA, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Characteristics of general and subspecialty pediatricians who choose not to recertify. Pediatrics 2008; 121 (4):711-717
  38. Freed GL, Abraham LM, Brzoznowski KF. Inactive physicians: The state of our understanding. J Pediatr 2007;151(4):431-434.
  39. Freed GL, Brzoznowski K, Neighbors K, Lakhani I, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Characteristics of the pediatric hospitalist workforce: Its roles and work environment. Pediatrics 2007;120(1):33-39.
  40. Freed GL, Uren RL, Hudson EJ, Lakhani I, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Who claims to be a pediatrician? J Pediatr 2007;150(6):545-548.
  41. Editorial: Stapleton BF. What is a pediatrician and who is asking? J Pediatr 2007;150(6):577-578.
  42. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at pediatric developmental-behavioral data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2007;150(3):311-312.
  43. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at pediatric infectious diseases data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2007;150(2):131-133.
  44. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at pediatric adolescent medicine data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2007;150(1):100-102.
  45. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at pediatric rheumatology data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;149(6):869-870.
  46. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at pediatric emergency medicine data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;149(5):600-602.
  47. Miles PV. Emergency department admission decision-making: An opportunity for quality improvement in medical education and practice. J Pediatr 2006;149(5);598-599.
  48. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at pediatric gastroenterology data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;149(4):560-562.
  49. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at pediatric critical care medicine data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;149(3):390-392.
  50. Freed GL, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Comparing perceptions of training for medicine-pediatrics and categorically trained physicians. Pediatrics 2006;118(3):1104-1108.
  51. Freed GL, Nahra TA, Wheeler JRC, The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Counting physicians: Inconsistencies in a commonly used source for workforce analysis. Acad Med 2006;81(9):847-852.
  52. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at pediatric pulmonology data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;149(2):262-264.
  53. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at pediatric endocrinology data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;149(1):10-11.
  54. Freed GL, Uren RL. Pay for performance: An overview for pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;149(1):120-124.
  55. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at neonatal-perinatal medicine data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;148(6):727-729.
  56. Freed GL, Hudson EJ. Transitioning children with chronic diseases to adult care: Current knowledge, practices, and directions. J Pediatr 2006;148(6):824-827.
  57. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric Workforce: A look at pediatric nephrology data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;148(5):575-576.
  58. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at pediatric hematology-oncology data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;148(4):436-437.
  59. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at pediatric cardiology data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;148(3):384-385.
  60. Freed GL, Uren RL. Hospitalists in children's hospitals: What we know now and what we need to know. J Pediatr 2006;148(3):296-299.
  61. Althouse LA, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: A look at general pediatrics data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2006;148(2):166-169.
  62. Freed GL, Uren RL, Hudson EJ, Lakhani I, Wheeler JRC, Stockman JA. Policies and practices related to the role of board certification and recertification of pediatricians in hospital privileging. JAMA 2006;295(8):905-912.
  63. Editorial: Cassel CK, Holmboe ES. Credentialing and public accountability: A central role for board certification.JAMA 2006;295(8):939-940.
  64. Freed GL, Singer D, Lakhani I, Wheeler JRC, Stockman JA. Use of board certification and recertification of pediatricians in health plan credentialing policies. JAMA 2006;295(8):913-918.
  65. Editorial: Cassel CK, Holmboe ES. Credentialing and public accountability: A central role for board certification. JAMA 2006;295(8):939-940.
  66. Freed GL, Fant KE, Nahra TA, Wheeler JRC and The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Internal medicine-pediatrics physicians: Their care of children versus care of adults. Acad Med 2005;80:858-865.
  67. Freed GL, Nahra TA, Venus PJ, Schech SD, Wheeler JRC and The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Changes in the proportion and volume of care provided to children by generalists and subspecialists. J Pediatr 2005; 146(1):14-19.
  68. Freed GL, Nahra TA, Wheeler JRC and The Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. Relation of per capita income and gross domestic product to the supply and distribution of pediatricians in the United States.J Pediatr 2004;144(6):723-728.
  69. Freed GL, Fant K. The impact of the 'Aging of America' on children. Health Affairs 2004; 23(2):168-174.
  70. Freed GL, Nahra TA, Wheeler JRC. Which physicians are providing health care to America's children? Trends and changes during the past 20 years. Arch Pediatr Adol Med 2004;158(1):22-26.
  71. Editorial: Forrest CB. Counting child health care professionals: Will the United States ever have a coherent workforce policy for children's health care. Arch Pediatr Adol Med 2004;158(1):13-14.
  72. Freed GL, Nahra TA, Wheeler JRC. Predicting the pediatric workforce: Use of trend analysis. J Pediatr 2003;143(5):570-575.
  73. Tunnessen WW, Guerin RO, Stockman JA. Pediatric workforce: Data from the American Board of Pediatrics. J Pediatr 2001;139(2):311-316