Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website.

Pediatrics-Anesthesiology Program

A special agreement exists with the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) whereby an applicant may fulfill the training requirements for certification in pediatrics and anesthesiology by completing five years of combined training. An applicant may not take the certifying examination of the ABP until all training requirements in both programs has been successfully completed.

Program Requirements for combined training have been approved by both the ABP and the ABA. Programs must be approved prospectively by both boards.

Download the American Board of Pediatrics and American Board of Anesthesiology Combined Residency Training Program Application Form.


Approved Training Programs

Program Name Program Director and Mailing Address
University of California (Irvine) Program Tommy J. Wang, MD
Univ of California (Irvine)/CHOC
General Pediatrics
Suite # 525
505 South Main Street
Orange, California 92868
Stanford University School of Medicine Rebecca L. Blankenburg, MD
Stanford University Medical Center
Lucile Packard Children's Hospital
725 Welch Road
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Children's Hospital of Boston Theodore C. Sectish, MD
Children's Hospital Boston
300 Longwood Avenue
Boston, MA 02115
Johns Hopkins Medicine Nicole A Shilkofski MD
Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children's Center, Rm 8461
1800 Orleans Street
Baltimore, MD 21287
University of North Carolina Kenya Adjora McNeal-Trice, MD
UNC at Chapel Hill
Pediatric Education Office
Peds & Peds-Anesthesiology
Campus Box 7593
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599
UPMC Medical Center Education Stephanie B Dewar MD
UPMC Med Center
4401 Penn Ave
Ste 5400
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15224
Medical College of Wisconsin Michael C. Weisgerber, MD
Medical College of Wisconsin
General Pediatrics-Anesthesiology
999 N. 92nd Street, Suite C430
Milwaukee, WI 53226


Program Requirements for Combined Training in Pediatrics and Anesthesiology Leading to Dual Certification

Effective July 1, 2009


This document is intended to provide educational guidance to program directors in pediatrics and anesthesiology as well as to individuals potentially interested in combined training in pediatrics and anesthesiology. All program requirements in both specialties, as described on the ACGME web site (, apply to combined residencies unless specifically modified in this document. However, this integrated program will require five, not six, years as would be necessary if these two residency programs were completed sequentially. Every program that wishes to offer this combined training must be approved by both the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) and the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) before residents are recruited. In addition, both Boards (and Review Committees, RCs, when applicable) will review these training requirements periodically.

Objectives of Combined Training

Combined training in pediatrics and anesthesiology should allow the development of physicians who are fully qualified in both specialties. Physicians completing this training should be competent pediatricians and anesthesiologists capable of professional activity in either discipline. It is anticipated that many trainees will develop careers focused on caring for children with complex medical and surgical conditions who are hospitalized and/or require perioperative/periprocedural management. The strengths of the two residencies should complement each other to provide the optimal educational experience and to develop leaders in the field.

Both Boards encourage residents to extend their training for an additional sixth year or more in subspecialty training in pediatrics or anesthesiology and/or investigative, administrative or academic pursuits in order to prepare graduates of this combined training program for careers in research, teaching, or departmental administration and to become leaders in their fields.

General Requirements

The Residency Candidate

Residents should enter a combined training residency at the first postgraduate year level (PGY-1). A resident may enter this combined residency at the PGY-2 level only if the first residency year was served in a categorical residency in pediatrics in the same academic medical center. Transitional year training will provide no credit toward the requirements of either Board. Residents may not enter combined residency training and receive credit beyond the PGY-1 level or transfer to another combined residency without the prospective approval of both Boards. A resident transferring from a combined residency to a categorical pediatric or anesthesiology program should seek specific eligibility information from the appropriate Board.

Vacations, leave, and meeting time will be shared equally by both training residencies. Absences from training (vacation, parental, sick, etc) exceeding 5 of the 60 months of required training must be made up.

Characteristics of Eligible Combined Residencies

The two participating core residency programs must be accredited by the ACGME and be within the same academic medical center. They must be located close enough to facilitate cohesion among the residents, attendance at conferences when scheduled, and faculty exchanges of curriculum, evaluation, administration and related matters. They should both be sponsored by the same ACGME Sponsoring Institution. The one exception is when the pediatric program is sponsored by an independent, free-standing, children's hospital in which case the Designated Institutional Official (DIO) of the institution that sponsors the pediatric residency program will be the DIO with responsibility for institutional oversight of the combined program.


The training requirements for eligibility for the certification process of each Board will be satisfied by the satisfactory completion of 60 months of approved combined training. A reduction of 12 months over that required for the two separate residencies is possible due to the overlap of curriculum and experience inherent in the training of each discipline. The reduction of 6 months of the standard 36 months of pediatric training is met by 30 months of training in the pediatric component of the combined residency and 6 months of credit granted for training appropriate to pediatrics obtained during the 30 months of anesthesiology residency. The requirement of 48 months of training in anesthesiology is met by the 12 months of the first year of residency in pediatrics, 30 months of training in the anesthesiology component of the combined residency, and 6 months of credit for training appropriate to anesthesiology obtained during the remaining 18 months of residency in pediatrics. The working relationships developed among categorical and combined residency trainees will facilitate communication between the two specialties and increase the exposure of categorical residents to the other discipline.

Training in the PGY-1 must include 12 months of training in pediatrics. During the second year, the resident must have 12 months of training in anesthesiology. In each of the remaining 3 years, the resident shall have 6 months of training in pediatrics and 6 months of training in anesthesiology. Rotations of shorter duration, but not less than 3 months, are also acceptable. During these last 3 years, it is important that program directors make certain that in the PGY-3, -4 and -5 years, each resident will have 18 months of training in each specialty.

Training in each discipline must incorporate graded responsibility throughout the training period.


The combined residency must have one designated director who will be responsible for all administrative aspects of the program and who can devote substantial time and effort to the educational program. This individual can be the director of either the categorical residency program in pediatrics or anesthesiology; the director of the other categorical residency program will be designated the associate director of this combined program. An exception to this requirement would be a single director who is certified in both specialties and has an academic appointment in each department. If the pediatric training largely occurs in an independent, free-standing children's hospital, the program director of the combined program should be the director of the pediatric residency program. The director and associate director must document meetings with each other at least quarterly to monitor the success of the residency and the progress of each resident.

Well-established communication must occur between these individuals, particularly in those areas where the basic concepts in both specialties overlap, to assure that the training of residents is well coordinated.

The program director is responsible for assuring all aspects of the program requirements are met. This individual, along with the associate program director, should submit the application for the program to both the ABP and ABA and notify both Boards should any significant changes occur in either of the associated categorical residency programs. The program director and associate program director are responsible for completing evaluation forms for all trainees in the combined program as required by their respective Boards, and both must verify satisfactory completion of the training program on the resident's final evaluation form.

As a general principle, the training of residents in pediatrics is the responsibility of the pediatric faculty and the training of residents in anesthesiology is the responsibility of the anesthesiology faculty.

There should be an adequate number of faculty members who devote sufficient time to provide leadership to the residency and supervision of the residents. It is recommended that some faculty members have completed combined training in these two specialties. Since each component of the residency must be accredited by its respective discipline, the faculty must meet the requirements for their specialty.

Pediatric faculty must be certified by the American Board of Pediatrics or have appropriate educational qualifications in pediatrics.

Anesthesiology faculty must be certified by the American Board of Anesthesiology or have appropriate educational qualifications in anesthesiology.

Curricular Requirements

A clearly described written curriculum must be available for residents, faculty, and the RCs of both Pediatrics and Anesthesiology. The curricular components must conform to the program requirements for accreditation in pediatrics and anesthesiology. The curriculum must assure a cohesive, planned educational experience and not simply comprise a series of rotations between the two specialties. Duplication of clinical experiences between the two specialties should be avoided. Periodic review of the residency curriculum must be performed by the program director and associate program director in consultation with residents and faculty from both departments. Combined training must not interfere with or compromise the training of the categorical residents in either field.

Joint educational conferences involving residents from pediatrics and anesthesiology are desirable and should specifically include the participation of all residents in the combined training residency whenever possible.

Pediatric Requirements

The development of the resident's skills in pediatrics will be fostered by rotations on general and subspecialty pediatric services, both inpatient and outpatient, with exposure to a wide spectrum of disease. The resident must be exposed to pathologic conditions ranging from mild to severe illness, including life-threatening conditions requiring critical care. Forty percent of clinical training must be in ambulatory settings. The pediatric patient population served must encompass adequate numbers and extend from the newborn (including premature infants) through childhood and adolescence. At least 4 months of supervisory responsibility must be provided for each resident during the 30 months of pediatric training.

The training should be the same as described in the Program Requirements of the RC for Pediatrics. The 30 months of pediatric training must include 24 months of experiences as specified below, with the additional 6 months at the discretion of the general pediatrics program director but taken from experiences accredited by the RC. The additional 6 months of credit is recognized through 6 months of anesthesiology training.

Ambulatory Service

In keeping with the commitment to primary and comprehensive care, the 5-year combined residency must provide that 40% of the pediatric experience be ambulatory. This may include all assignments in continuity clinic, acute illness and emergency department, and community-based experiences, as well as the ambulatory portion of the normal newborn, subspecialty, behavior/development, and adolescent experiences.

Emergency and Acute Illness Experience

The experience in emergency and acute illness must constitute a minimum of 4 months. Two of these months should be in emergency medicine; at least 1 of these months must be a block rotation in an emergency department that serves as the receiving point for EMS transport and ambulance traffic and is the access point for seriously injured and acutely ill pediatric patients in the service area.

Inpatient Experience

Inpatient pediatrics must constitute at least 5 months of a resident's overall experience, exclusive of intensive care rotations. Intensive care experiences must be for a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 6 months and must include at least 3 block-months of neonatal intensive care (Level II or III) and 2 block-months of pediatric intensive care.

Normal Newborn Nursery

At least 1 month must be spent in the care of the normal newborn infant.

Subspecialty Experience

Time spent in training in the pediatric subspecialties, excluding adolescent medicine, developmental behavioral pediatrics, and intensive care experiences, must be a minimum of 7 months. Rotations in pediatric anesthesiology during pediatric training are restricted to one month, either as a required subspecialty or as an elective rotation. The required subspecialty experience should conform to the RC program requirements for categorical pediatric training.

Continuity Clinic

Continuity clinic in general pediatrics is required throughout the 30 months of pediatric training in accordance with the RC requirements. The number of weekly half-day sessions per year should be prorated on the basis of the number of pediatrics months assigned per year. It is expected that these experiences continue at least once a month during anesthesiology training; attendance at pediatric conferences is desirable on the day of pediatric continuity clinics. Program directors have discretion to determine whether the reciprocal time on the other specialty should be for a half day or a full day once a month as long as equal time is devoted to each specialty.

Adolescent Medicine

There must be a structured educational experience to train residents in the medical and psychosocial problems of the adolescent. This rotation must be for at least 1 block-month.

Behavioral/Developmental Pediatrics

At least 1 block-month of a structured, focused experience in behavioral/developmental pediatrics must be provided. The experience must be supervised by faculty with training and/or experience in the behavioral/developmental aspects of pediatrics.


Requirements for Anesthesiology

The development of the resident's skills in anesthesiology will be fostered by rotations in anesthesiology and its subspecialties caring for adult as well as pediatric patients.

The training should be the same as described in the program requirements of the RC for Anesthesiology with the exceptions that follow.

Thirty months of training must be in anesthesiology. The additional 6 months of credit is recognized through 6 months of pediatric training.

Training in anesthesiology must include the following experiences:

  1. Two identifiable one-month rotations in obstetric anesthesiology, pediatric anesthesiology, neuroanesthesiology, and cardiothoracic anesthesiology. A rotation in pediatric anesthesiology, if taken during the first postgraduate year, is not considered part of this requirement for two months of pediatric anesthesiology experience.
  2. A minimum of one month experience in an adult intensive care unit in addition to the requirements for training in neonatal and pediatric critical care medicine.
  3. Three months of pain medicine; this may include one month in an acute perioperative pain management rotation, one month in the assessment and treatment of inpatients and outpatients with chronic pain problems, and one month of regional analgesia experience.
  4. One month in a preoperative evaluation clinic.
  5. One-half month in a post anesthesia care unit.
  6. Advanced experiences can be in additional focused anesthesia subspecialties, related areas, or research.
  7. No single subspecialty, excluding critical care medicine, shall exceed six months total.
  8. Minimum clinical experiences as defined by the program requirements for anesthesiology must be met.
  9. Rotations cannot be "counted" twice. Thus, rotations (such as pediatric critical care medicine, etc.) may be considered by the program to meet the requirements for training in pediatrics or anesthesiology, but not both simultaneously.
  10. It is expected that anesthesiology experiences continue at least once a month during pediatric training; attendance at anesthesiology conferences is desirable on these days of anesthesiology practice. Program directors have discretion to determine whether the reciprocal time on the other specialty should be for a half day or a full day once a month as long as equal time is devoted to each specialty



There must be adequate, ongoing evaluation of the knowledge, skills and performance of residents. Entry evaluation assessment, interim testing and periodic reassessment, utilizing appropriate evaluation modalities, including in-training examinations as currently required by both pediatrics and anesthesiology, should be employed. There must be a method of documenting the procedures that are performed by the residents. Such documentation must be maintained by the program director and/or associate program director, be available for review by the RCs in Pediatrics and Anesthesiology, the ABP, the ABA, and site visitors, and may be used to provide documentation for application for hospital privileges by graduates of these training programs.

The faculty must provide a written evaluation of each resident after each rotation and these must be available for review by the site visitors of RCs. Written evaluation of each resident's knowledge, skills, professional growth, and performance, using appropriate criteria and procedures, must be accomplished at least semi-annually and must be communicated to and discussed with the resident in a timely manner.

Residents should be advanced to positions of higher responsibility only on the basis of evidence of their satisfactory progressive scholarship and professional growth.

The program director and associate program director are responsible for the maintenance of a permanent record of each resident and its accessibility to the resident and other authorized personnel. The program director, associate program director, and faculty are responsible for provision of a written final evaluation for each resident who completes the program. This evaluation must include a review of the resident's performance during the final period of training in each specialty and should verify that the resident has demonstrated sufficient professional ability to practice competently and without supervision and is prepared to apply for the certification processes of both the ABP and ABA. This final evaluation should be part of the resident's permanent record and should be maintained by the institution.

Eligibility for Certification

The residents in a combined training residency must satisfactorily complete the specific requirements of both the ABP and ABA to be eligible for the examination by each Board. Clinical competence must be verified by both the program director and associate program director in their respective specialties. Lacking this verification, the resident must satisfactorily complete 3 years of training in pediatrics or 3 years training in anesthesiology in addition to the PGY-1 to qualify for the examination in the respective specialty.

Upon successful completion of all requirements of the combined residency, the candidate is qualified to take both the ABP and ABA certification examinations. Residents may submit an application for the general pediatrics certifying examination and the ABA's part 1 (written) examination during their fifth year of training; however, applicants may not take either of these examinations until all of the combined residency training requirements have been successfully completed. The ABA's part 2 (oral) examination can occur at the earliest the following year. The candidate will be certified by each Board upon successful completion of its certifying requirements. Certification in one specialty will not be contingent upon certification in the other. It is the candidate's responsibility to complete the certification process in each specialty.

7/09 Approved by American Board of Pediatrics and and The American Board of Anesthesiology, Inc.